Oracle 11i Application Developer – Technical FAQ – Part 2

Hello Friends, here is the second set of Questions on Application Developers , more of general questions, i am not digging in particular areas , only trying to put question which i normally ask with candidates. If you want help in any specific areas , plz advise, i will try to do that.

Q11 ) What is SET-OF-BOOKS?
Collection of Chat of Accounts and Currency and Calendars is called SOB

Q12 ) What is the interface?
Interface Table is a table which is used as medium for transfer of data between two systems.

Q13 Tell me what is the procedure to develop an interface?
a. First we will get the Requirement document.
b. We will create control file based on that plot file.
c. Then the control files which loads the data into staging tables.
d. Through pl/sql programs we will mapping and validate the data and then dump into the interface tables.
e. Through the standard programs we will push the data from interface tables to Base tables.

Q14) What is multi org?
“Legal entity has more than one operating unit is called as multi org”
a) Business group — Human resources information is secured by Business group
b) Legal entity. — inter-company and fiscal/tax reporting.
c) Operating unit — secures AR, OE, AP, PA and PO Information.
d) Organizations — is a specialize unit of work at particular locations

Q15) What are the User PARAMETERS in the Reports?

FND SRWINIT sets your profile option values, multiple organizations and allows Oracle Application Object Library user exits to detect that they have been called by an Oracle Reports program.
FND SRWEXIT ensures that all the memory allocated for AOL user exits have been freed up properly.
FND FLEXIDVAL are used to display flex field information like prompt, value etc
FND FLEXSQL these user exits allow you to use flex fields in your reports
FND FORMAT_CURRENCY is used to print currency in various formats by using formula column

Q17) what are the two parameters that are mandatory for pl/sql type concurrent program?
Procedure/function (ERRBUF OUT
ERRBUF :- Used to write the error message to log or request file.
RETCODE :- Populate log request file with program submission details info.

Q18.) What is Value Set?
–The value set is a collection (or) container of values.
–When ever the value set associated with any report parameters. It provides list of values to the end user to accept one of the values as report parameter value.
n If the list of values needed to be dynamic and ever changing and define a table based values set.

Q19) What r the validation types in Value Set?
1) None ——– validation is minimal.
2) Independent ——input must exist on previously defined list of values
3) Dependent ——input is checked against a subset of values based on a
prior value.
3) Table —– input is checked against values in an application table
4) Special ——values set uses a flex field itself.
5) Pair —— two flex fields together specify a range of valid values.
6) Translatable independent —– input must exist on previously defined list
of values; translated values can be used.
7) Translatable dependent ——- input is checked against a subset of values
based on a prior values; translated value can be used.

Q20) Who information’s?
1) Created by
2) Creation date
3) Last _updated by
4) last_update_date

Thanks  — Shivmohan Purohit

Oracle Applications Documentation AIM Methodology

Oracle Applications – Documentations – Using AIM or Tailored AIM Methodology

here i am giving brief intro, in next article you can find much details information on AIM documents and reference


Not all companies are using the same AIM instead they are using their own giving different names but the formats of all the documents are more or less same. Each stage is having set of documents.

First Stage: Analysis
Second Stage: Designing
Third Stage: Build – DEMO / PROTO TYPE
Fourth Stage : Testing
Fifth Stage : Go Live
Six Stage : Post Production

Various documents for different scope and criterias such as


Below some brief on mostly used document types
BR Documents : Business Requirement Documents, which is primafaciely done by the Functional Persons of the Implementation Team like Funtional Project Leads / Managers. These documents are the Set up Documents, which is 100% based on the BR 120 – Business Requirement Gatherings as provided by the business. Now as a Funtional Consultant you need to always go for the BR – 100, that is set up document, so BR 100 is the To Be Process after you gather all sorts of info from the Biz and map in the Oracle systems
MD Documents : Modular Designing Documents, which are is primafaciely done by the Technical Persons of the Implementation Team like Technical Project Leads / Project Manager. These documents are the Design Documents, which is again based on the BR 120 – Business Requirement Gathering as provided by the business. These MD’s are of basically discussed any customization needs or any special behaviaour oracle system should work which is not the Standard Oracle Funtionality. These also discussed about the tables and the Interface Tables or forms which are going to be used in the particular modules. Thses also discussed about the High Level Designs like Flows of the Business and all. These MD’s are basically made after you all Functional Design and if there is no work around Oracle System provides for a particular Test Scenario and there is no other way other than to go for the Customization.

MD.70 is technical Document(Technical resource will design), which show all Technical Details like Coding, Maping and Logics.
MD.50 is Desgin Document(Functional resource will design), which explore all design methods like its road-map, which includes all design setups.

thanks – Shivmohan Purohit

Oracle Applications – Technical Interview Questions

Hello Friends, Upon requests on some of my friends, i am posting few more generic oracle applications’ questions. hope this will give you overview of generic features. do share your feedback if these are good n useful.

what is a flexfield qualifier ?

Oracle Applications products use flexfield qualifiers to identify certain segments used for specific purposes. eg: segment named ‘Account’ is qualified as ‘Natural Account’so that it identifies Accounts, similarly a segment named ‘Company’ can be qualified as ‘Balancing Segment’, i.e, for these segment values B/S can be brought out in Accounting Flexfield in GL.

A flexfield is made of segments and oracle identifies if particular segment in the accounting flexfield is an account segment or a company segment, based on some predefined values called as flexfield qualifiers which are assigned to the segments to look meaningful for defining the accounting flexfield. Eg: Account segment uses Natural Account segment and the company segment uses Balancing segment are mandatory for defining the accounting flexfield. Other values are Cost center segment, Inter company segment, secondary tracking segment

What is the difference between configuration, conversion, and customization?

Conversion ,customization and configuration are part of an oracle implementation project they come in this order

1. configuration/set up

2. Customization

3. Conversion

Configuration is setting up customer specific requirement which generally exist in oracle apps customization is filling the gap between oracle apps and Customer requirement by developing some extension and solution design

Customization is relatively different thing, something that is not a part of oracle apps core product but the client requirement demands it we go for Customization. If the functionality demanded by the client exists in the application, it is to be configured according to his needs by taking some data, this is called configuration

Conversion is structural change of customer data in a form which is compatible with oracle database best of luck. Conversion is the process of mapping the tables from a legacy system to apps system. Sometimes conversions can be from one version to other

Where we can check the status of PO.

In po_headers_all authorization_status coloumn is their we can find through this coloumn

What is back order in OM

There are few reasons that a scheduled order could be Backordered during pick release process.

1. In-sufficient onhand

2. Order might be put as ‘Pick release hold’

3. If it’s a lot controlled item being involved then some of the factors will be checking at picking rule setup (like Lot- expiration date, etc) and tured to ‘Backordered’ incase the criteria does not meet.

Where we find the status of order information.

Order header status is in oe_order_headers_all table reference with flow_status_code column and order line status would be oe_order_lines_all table reference with flow_status_code column.

What are the tables of auto invoice?


For report i have to parameters those are from_date and to_date ,so to_date should be greater when compare to from_date ,if we are giving to_date is less then it must shows some error how we will make it.

While defining Parameters you can set range option(in concurrent prog parameters window). Select low for from_Date and high for to_Date.Then it will not allow for from_date > to_date.

How to find the custom directory in front end.

From Application Developer responsibility, navigate to Application –> Register. Query for the custom application name. The value in the field Basepath, is the OS system variable that stores the actual directory info.

What are the execution methods in oracle apps?

1. Host

2. Immediate

3. Java Stored Procedure

4. Java Concurrent Program

5. Multi Language Function

6. Oracle Reports

7. Request Set Stage Function

8. Pl/Sql Stored Procedure

9. Spawned

10. Sql*Lodar

11. Sql*Plus

12. Perl Concurrent Program

What are APIs

API stands for application program interface. Oracle has its own api facility to transfer data from a external source to oracle base table so api is an standard oracle tool to transfer data to oracle database. It is a very simple method and a person with no technical background also can use api. Example-uploading journal and budget data through API.

Thanks – plz share questions if you have more in this area. also share your comment/feedback. Shivmohan Purohit

Oracle Applications / Financials – Functional Question on General Ledger – Budgeting

Oracle Applications / Financials – Functional Question on General Ledger – Budgeting. Quite useful as FAQ and Interview Questions for General Ledger.

11. What is Set of Books? What are the four conditions when you change your SOBs?SOB is of 2 types – Primary and Reporting.Primary SOB – All transactions are with functional Currency

12. What is an Invoice?
AR invoice is a document sent to the customer with details like, Bill-to customer code, product code, qty sent, price, currency, credit terms, tax details, etc. Based on this invoice, customer will make payment to the company and the same is applied against the invoice. AP invoice is the document received from the supplier and contains information such supplier details, product code, qty, price and tax details. This invoice is entered in the AP module and payment is made to the supplier against this invoice.
There are 2 types of invoices-

1. Periodic 2. Milestone

Also, Invoice is an information sheet which a company sends to the buyer along with the good. It explains the details of the goods in the shipment and also the prices. Invoices can contain all sorts of data regarding the shipment and goods depending on the company and product.

13. Can you disable budgetary control for a set of books?

You can, however existing encumbrances are not cleared from the feeder systems. Therefore it is not recommended. If you do change the budgetary control options for an existing set of books, you must do two things for the change to be reflected.

–Run the Period Map Maintenance concurrent request, it must complete successfully.

–Exit Oracle Applications and restart. You must completely exit the application…it is not sufficient to select Sign on again from the Oracle Applications Special menu.

14. Is there a limit to the number of periods in a budget year or how many years a budget can span?

There is no limit for the budget. One can define budgetary control for n number of years however, one year can have maximum of 60 fiscal periods.

15. Why don’t my Detail budgets roll up to my Master budget?
Detail budgets do not automatically roll up to the master budget. The GL uses summary accounts to maintain master/detail budget relationships between them.

16. I was able to post a budget journal to a closed period, why?
Yes, a budget journal can be posted to any period that is in an open budget year for that budget. This is regardless of the status of that period. The budget journal is not linked with your accounting period. Once you have open the budget period then you can book budget journal for that whole period.

17. How many ‘Current’ budgets can you have?
For each set of books, you can have only one current budget at any point in time. The only distinction between a ‘current’ and an ‘open’ budget is that the current budget defaults into the budget field on several budget-related forms. It can be replaced however by any ‘open’ budget in the field.
18. What is a funding budget?

Funding budget is a budget against which accounting transactions are checked for available funds when budgetary control is enabled for your set of books. Funding Budgets are approved budgets.Two types of budgets are there in Oracle Apps: 1- Fund 2- Plan.

Fund budget create the Budget Journal but plan budget used only for planning. Fund budget requires journal entries, and is assigned to a summary template or account range in the budget org, where the funds check level is set at Absolute or Advisory. It is the assignment that makes it a ‘funding budget’; it is not done at the budget definition level.

19. Why is my budget requiring budget journals?
At the set of books level that option is not enabled? This would happen when the budget itself is defined to require budget journals. This is done at the budget definition level.

20. Why can’t I inquire on my budget amounts from INQUIRE/BUDGETS navigation path?
The Budget Inquiry form (GLXIQBUD) is used to perform inquiries about master and detail budgets. GL compares summary balances between your master and detail budgets, and checks for budget variances and violations. This form only looks at summary accounts. To inquire on detail accounts you must use the navigation INQUIRE/ACCOUNTS, and choose the ‘budget’ amount type.

21. If I delete my budget org, will the budget amounts be deleted?
No, the amounts will be same. Deleting the budget organization does not remove the budget amounts from the GL_BALANCES table.

22. Can I update/adjust an existing account range in my budget organization?
Yes you can update an existing account range in Budget Organization.

23 How many times can a budget be purged?
Budget can be purged only one time.

24. Why is there no value in the REQUEST_ID column of GL_BUDGET_INTERFACE for rows with data that failed to be uploaded by the Budget Spreadsheet Upload program?
You are trying to open the next budget year. After navigating to the form and querying the budget, you notice the [Open Next Year] button is grayed out. You find that Account code combinations are not being added to the Budget Organization.
25. Why don’t my Detail budgets roll up to my Master budget?

Detail budgets do not automatically roll up to the master budget. The GL uses summary accounts to maintain master/detail budget relationships between hierarchy levels. Summary templates are defined so that accounts in your lower level detail budgets roll up into the same summary accounts as the detail accounts in your controlling master budget. A common misconception is that the detail budgets somehow roll up to the master budget by definition, this is not true. You must actually budget to a detail account in the master budget; this then serves as the controlling amount for the detail budgets. Master/Detail budgets are used in the budgeting process to control Authority and identify budgets that exceed control limits. They are not intended for reporting purposes.

26. I was able to post a budget journal to a closed period, why?
A budget journal can be posted to any period that is in an open budget year for that budget. This is regardless of the status of that period (closed, opened, or future enterable).
27. Why don’t my budget amounts appear on my FSG?

To include budgets (encumbrances or currencies) in a FSG report, your report definition must specify a row set of column set that has control values specified in the Balance Control options. In the report definition itself, you associate budget names with the control values that are assigned to the row or column set.

Shivmohan Purohit

Reporting SOB – All transactions are with foreign Currency

You have to assign your SOB to your responsibility. Set of book means linking between the 3cs i.e. chart of accounts, calendar, currency and maintain 5 mandatory accounts. Set of books are created keeping in mind the ‘Accounting Structure”. This is a combination of 3 ‘Cs’ – Chart of Accounts, Currency and Calendar. Chart of Accounts is made up of segments- Max of 30 Segments are allowed. Two Segments are mandatory – Balancing and Natural segment, Calendar –This can have a max of 365 periods (daily calendar) and a min of 1 period (Yearly calendar). Periods can be monthly, fortnightly, weekly, daily.

Oracle – Technical FAQ – Part 4

 Q18.) What are the OOPS concepts in Oracle?

A18.) Oracle does implement the OOPS concepts. The best example is the Property Classes. We can categorise the properties by setting the visual attributes and then attach the property classes for the objects. OOPS supports the concepts of objects and classes and we can consider the property classes as classes and the items as objects.


Q19) What is the difference between candidate key, unique key and primary key?

A19) Candidate keys are the columns in the table that could be primary keys and the primary key is the key that has been selected to identify the rows. Unique key is also useful for identifying the distinct rows in the table.


Q20) What is concurrency?

A20) Concurrency is allowing simultaneous access of same data by different users. Locks useful for accessing the database are

a) Exclusive — The exclusive lock is useful for locking the row when an insert , update or delete is being done. This lock should not be applied when we do only select from the row.

b) Share lock — We can do the table as Share_Lock as many share_locks can be put on the same resource.


Q21) What are the Previleges and Grants?

A21) Privileges are the right to execute a particular type of SQL statements. The grant has to be given by the owner to object.


Q22) What are Table Space, Data files, parameter file, control files?

A22) Table space: The table space is useful for storing the data in the database. When a database is created two table spaces are created.

a) System Table space : This data file stores all the tables related to the system and dba tables.

b) User Table Space: This data file stores all the user related tables.

We should have separate table spaces for storing the tables and indexes so that the access is fast.

Data files : Every oracle Data base has one or more physical data files. They store the data for the database. Every datafile is associated with only one database. Once the data file is created the size can not change. To increase the size of the database to store more data we have to add data file.

Parameter file:Parameter file is needed to start an instance. A parameter file contains the list of instance configuration parameters e.g. db_block_buffers = 500

db_name = ORA7

db_domain = u.s.acme lang

Control files : Control files record the physical structure of the data files and redo log files . They contain the DB name, name and locations of dbs , data files, redo log files and time stamp.


Q23) What is physical storage of the Data?

A23) The finest level of granularity of the data base are the blocks.

Extent : Extent is the number of specific number of contigious data blocks.

Segments : Set of Extents allocated for Extents. There are three types of segments

a) Data Segment : Non clustered tables has data segment data of every table is stored in cluster data segment.

b) Index Segment : Each index has index segment that stores data.

c) Rollback Segment : Temporarily store ‘undo’ information.


Q24) What is Normalisation ? Explain 1NF, 2NF, 3NF.

Normalization is a process of eliminating data redudancy.

1NF- No repeating groups.

2NF- Eliminates the functional dependency on the partial key field.

3NF- Eliminates the functional dependency on the non-key field.

Oracle – Technical FAQ – Part 2

Q6) What are the database triggers and stored procedures?
A6) Database triggers are procedures that are automatically executed as a result of insert in, update to or delete from table.
Database triggers have the values old and new to denote the old value in the table before it is deleted and the new indicated the new value that will be used. DT are useful for implementing complex business rules which can not be enforced using the integrity rules. We can have the trigger as before trigger or after trigger and at statement or row level.
e.g. operations insert, update, delete — 3
before, after 3 * 2 — a total of 6 combinations

At statement level (once for the trigger) or row level (for every execution) 6 * 2 — a total of 12.

Thus a total of 12 combinations are there and the restriction of usage of 12 triggers has been lifted from Oracle 7.3 onwards

Stored Procedures : Stored procedures are procedures that are stored in complied form in the database. The advantage of using the stored procedures is that many users can use the same procedure in compiled and ready to use format.


Q7) How many integrity rules are there and what are they?

A7) There are three integrity rules and they are as follows

a)Entity integrity Rule : The entity integrity rule enforces that the primary key can not be Null

b) Foreign key integrity rule : The FKIR denotes that the relationship between the foreign key and the primary key has to be enforced. When there is data in child tables the master tables can not be deleted.

c) Business integrity rules : The third integrity rule is about the complex business processes which can not be implemented by the above 2 rules.


Q.8.) What are the various Master and Detail relationships?

A.8.) The various Master and Detail relationship are

a) Non Isolated : The Master can not be deleted when a child is existing

b) Isolated : The master can be deleted when the child is existing

c) Cascading : The child gets deleted when the master is deleted.


Q9) What are the various Block Coordination properties ?.

A9) The various block coordination properties are

a) Immediate – Default setting. The detail records are shown when the Master Record are shown.

b) Differed with AutoQuery — Oracle forms defer fetching the detail records until the operator navigates to the detail block.

C) Deffered with no auto query — The operator must navigate to the detail block and explicitly executes a query.


Q10) What are the different Optimisation techniques ?

A10) The various optimisation techniques are

a) Execute plan : We can see the plan of the query and change it accordingly based on the indexes

b) Optimizer_hint : Set_item_property (‘DeptBlock’,OPTIMIZER_HINT,’FIRST_ROWS’);

Select /* + First Rows */ Deptno, Dname, Loc, Rowid from dept

where (Deptno > 25)

c) Optimize_sql : By setting the optimize_sql = No, Oracle Forms assign a single cursor for all SQL statements. This slow downs the processing because for everytime the SQL must be parsed whenever they are executed. f45run module = my_firstform useid = scott/tiger optimize_Tp = No


  more questions are here :

Part 3 is here :

Part 1 is here :




Oracle – Technical FAQ – Part 1

Q1) What are the background processes in Oracle and what are they?
Ans: This is one of the most frequently asked question. There are basically 9 processes but in a general system we need t mention the first five background processes. They do the house keeping activities for the Oracle and are common in any system
The various background processes in oracle are
a) Data base writer (DBWR) : Data Base Writer writes modified blocks from databas buffer cache to Datafiles. This is required since the data is not written whenever a transaction is commited.

b) LogWriter(LGWR) : LogWriter writes the redo log entries to disk. Redo log data is generated in redo log buffer of SGA. As transaction commits and logs buffer fills, LGWR writes log entries into a online redo log file.

c) System Monitor (SMON) : The System Monitor performs instance recovery at instance startup. This is useful for recovery from system failure.

d) Process Monitor (PMON) : The Process Monitor performs process recovery when user process fails. Pmon clears and frees resources that process was using.

e) CheckPoint (CKPT): At specified times, all modified database buffers in SGA are written to data files by DBWR at checkpoints and updating all data files and control files of database to indicate the most recent checkpoint.

f) Archiever (ARCH) : The archiever copies online redo log files to archival storal when they are busy.

g) recoveror (RECO) : The recoveror is used to reslove the distributed transaction in network.

h) Dispatcher (Dnnn) : The Dispatcher is useful in Multi Threaded Architecture.

i) Lckn : We can have upto 10 lock processed for inter instance locking in parallel sql.

Q2) How many types of sql statements are there in Oracle?

A2) There are basically 6 types of sql statements. They are

a) Data defination Language (DDL) : The DDL statements define and maintain objects and drop objects.

b) Data Manipulation Language (DML) : The DML statements manipulate database data

c) Transaction Control Statements : Manage change by DML

d) Session Control : Used to control the properties of current session enabling and disabling roles and changing e.g. Alter statements , Set Role

e) System Control Statements : Change properties of Oracle Instance e.g. Alter System

f) Embedded Sql : Incorporate DDL, DML and TCS in processing Languagel e.g. Using the SQL statements in language such as ‘C’, Open, Fetch, Execute and close

Q3) What is a transaction in Oracle ?

A3) A transaction is a logical unit of work that compromises one or more SQL statements executed by a simple user. According to ANSI, a transaction begins with first executable statement and ends when it is explicitly commited or rolled back.

Q4) What are the key words used in Oracle?

A4) The key words that are used in Oracle are

a) Commiting : A transaction is said to be commited when the transaction makes permanent changes resulting from the SQL statements

b) Rollback : A transaction that retracts any of the changes resulting from SQL statements in Transaction.

c) Savepoint : For long transactions that contain many SQL statements , intermediate markers or savepoints are declared. Savepointes can be used to divide a transaction into smaller points.

d) Rolling forward : Process of applying redo log during recovery is called rolling forward.

e) Cursor : A cursor is a handle (name or a pointer) for the memory associated with a specific statement. A cursor is basically an area allocated by Oracle for executing the SQL statement. Oracle uses an implicit cursor statement for single row query and uses Explicit cursor for a multirow query.

f) System Global Area (SGA) : The SGA is a shared memory region allocated by the Oracle that contains Data and control information for one Oracle Instance. It consists of Database buffre cache and redo log buffer.

g) Program Global Area (PGA) : The PGA is a memory buffer that contains data and control information for server process.

h) Database Buffer Cache : Database buffer of SGA stores he most recently used blcoks of database data. The set of database buffers in an instance is called Database Buffer Cache.

i) Redo log buffer : Redo log buffer of SGA stores all the redo log entries.

j) Redo log files :Redo log files are set of files that protect altered database in memory that has been not written to Data files. They are basically used for backup when a database crashes.

k) Process : A process is a ‘thread of control’ or mechanism in Operating System that executes series of steps

Q5) What are procedures, functions and packages?

A5) Procedures and functions consist of set of PL/SQL statements that are grouped together as a unit to solve a specific problem or perform a set of related tasks.

Procedure do not return values while functions return one and only one value.

Packages provide a method of encapsulating and storing related procedures, functions and other package contents.

 more questions are here :

Part 3 is here :